Howard Spivak, MD, is the Principal Deputy Director of the National Institute of Justice, USDOJ. Before joining NIJ, he was Director of the Division of Violence Prevention at the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control. He began his career as Director of Adolescent Services for the City of Boston. He moved on to become the Deputy Commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Dr. Spivak has held a number of senior academic appointments including Professor of Pediatrics and Community Health at Tufts University, directed pediatric and adolescent primary care programs at several academic medical centers, published numerous academic and lay publication articles on youth violence, spoken around the country and internationally on violence related issues, and worked with many community programs both in Boston and nationally addressing youth violence prevention as well as other violence-related concerns. He has co-authored 2 books on youth violence: Murder Is No Accident and Sugar and Spice and No Longer Nice.