the look on a prospective employer's face if a
former Yakuza member were to appear for a
job interview with a tattoo visible on his arm
marry their child. The Russian Mafia and
for weeks wearing the soiled clothes. The
stench must effectively exclude social and
economic opportunities outside the gang.
social services to communities. The Mafia has
provided scholarships and made loans to the
constrain petty crime, sponsor street festivals
and occasionally rough up landlords at the re-
quest of tenants. The Yakuza of Kobe provided
disaster relief after the earthquake of 1995.
One might think that a religious group aspir-
ing to govern would try to make itself popular
nizations often go out of their way to make life
worse for the populations they aim to govern.
surviving as is and restricting access to shop-
ping for hungry households. Muqtada al-
Sadr's Mahdi Army in Basra is infamous for
harassing women who don't wear veils. The