Paul Wolfowitz is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on development and national security issues. Previously, he was president of the World Bank and served in the administrations of seven U.S. presidents. As deputy secretary of defense under President George W. Bush, he oversaw the budget and procurement as well as development of policy relating to the terrorism attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. He was undersecretary of defense during the first Gulf War and played a leadership role in the historic nuclear arms reduction initiative of September 1991. Among other roles, he was assistant secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, and ambassador to Indonesia. He has taught at Yale University and was dean and professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. He is chairman of the U.S.-Taiwan Business Council and serves on numerous boards. He earned a B.A. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago.