Youssef Boutros-Ghali is a former Egyptian minister of finance and a former chairman of the International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC). While minister of finance from 2004 to 2011, Boutros-Ghali helped modernize the Egyptian economy by implementing economic, social security and pension reforms. In 2008, he was elected chairman of the IMFC, the policymaking body of the International Monetary Fund. During his tenure, members collaborated to help prevent a global economic collapse and to coordinate a recovery. Boutros-Ghali, a free-trade advocate, held several ministerial posts from 1993 to 2011, including minister of foreign trade. Before that, he was economic advisor to Egypt's prime minister and to the governor of the Central Bank of Egypt. He began his career with the IMF. In 2005 and 2006, he received the Emerging Markets award for Finance Minister of the Year for the Middle East. He holds a B.A. in economics from Cairo University and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.